Chinese Taxillus Herb
Chinese Taxillus Herb is the dried branch, with leaf, of Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser (Fam. Loranthaceae). The drug is collected in winter and spring, removed from thick stem, cut into sections, and dried or dried after steaming.
Description Branches cylindrical, 3-4 cm long, 0.2-1 cm in diameter. Externally reddish-brown or greyish-brown, with fine longitudinal wrinkles and numerous, fine prominent brown lenticels, some young branches with dark brown pubescences; texture hard, fracture irregular, bark reddish-brown, wood pale in colour. Leaves frequently rolled, short petioled, when whole, ovate or elliptical, 3-8 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, externally yellowish-brown, young leaves covered with fine pubescences, apex obtusely rounded, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin entire; texture leathery. Odourless; taste, astringent.
Identification (1) Transverse section of stem: Epidermal cells sometimes remained. Cork cells 10 or more layers, some containing brown contents. Cortex narrow, groups of stone cells occurring in older stem, parenchymatous cells containing brown contents. Groups of stone cells and fibre bundles existing in pericycle, arranged in an interrupted ring. Phloem extremely narrow, rays with scattered stone cells. Fascicular cambium distinct. Xylem rays 1-4-cells wide, stone cells occurring near pith; vessels scattered singly or 2-3 aggregated in groups. Groups of stone cells occurring in pith and the parenchymatous cells containing brown contents. Some stone cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate or brown contents.
Powder: Pale yellowish-brown. Stone cells subsquare, subrounded, occasionally branched, in some cells, walls thickened on 3 sides and thin on one side, containing prisms of calcium oxalate. Fibres in bundles, about 17 mm in diameter. Bordered pitted, reticulated and spiral vessels frequently observed. Fragments of branched asteriate hairs rare.
(2) To 5 g of the powder add 60 ml of methanol-water (1:1), heat under reflux for 1 hour, filter while hot, evaporate the filtrate to about 20 ml, dilute with 10 ml of water, add about 0.5 ml of dilute sulfuric acid, boil under reflux for 1 hour, extract with two 30-ml quantities of ethyl acetate by shaking, evaporate the combined solution to about 1 ml as the test solution. Dissolve quercitin CRS in ethyl acetate to produce a solution containing 0.5 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix VI B) using silica gel G prepared with 0.5% sodium hydroxide solution as the coating substance and a mixture of toluene (saturated with water)-ethyl formate-formic acid (5:4:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10 ml each of the above two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air. Spray with a 5% solution of aluminium trichloride in ethanol, examine under ultraviolet light (365 nm). A fluorescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution corresponds in colour and position to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.
Cardiac glycoside To 10 g of the coarse powder add 50 ml of 80% ethanol, heat under reflux for 30 minutes, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness on a water bath, dissolve the residue in 10 ml of hot water, filter, extract the filtrate with four 15-ml quantities of ether by shaking, discard the ether layer. To the water solution, add saturated lead acetate solution until the precipitate is completed, filter, to the filtrate add 10 ml of ethanol, then add saturated sodium sulfate solution to remove the lead ion, filter, extract the filtrate with three 15-ml quantities of chloroform by shaking, evaporate the combined chloroform solution to 1 ml. Drop the concentrated solution on a filter paper, dry, drop alkaline 3, 5-dinitrobenzoic acid solution (mix 1 ml of dinitrobenzoic acid TS and 1 ml of sodium hydroxide TS) on the paper, no purple-red colour appears.
Processing Eliminate foreign matter, wash briefly, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dry.
Action To replenish the liver and the kidney, to strengthen the tendons and bones, to relieve rheumatic conditions, and to prevent abortion.
Indications Rheumatic or rheumatoid arthralgia with aching and weakness of the loins and knees; abnormal uterine bleeding, excessive menstrual flow; uterine bleeding during pregnancy, threatened abortion; hypertension.
Usage and dosage 9-15 g.
Storage Preserve in a dry place, protected from moth.