Cattail Pollen is the dried pollen of Typha angustifolia L., Typha orientalis Presl or other plants of the same genus (Fam. Typhaceae). Yellow male inflorescence is gathered in summer, dried in the sun and ground. The drug is collected by sifting.
Description: Yellow powder. Texture light, capable of floating on water, with satiny feeling when twisted and easi-ly adsorbed on fingers. Odour, slight; taste, weak.
Identification: (1) Powder: Yellow. Pollen grains subrounded or elliptical, 17-29 mm in diameter, exine with reticulate sculptures, with convex wavy or gear shape contour line, single pore indistinct.
(2) To 2 g of the powder add 30 ml of 80% ethanol, heat under reflux for l hour, filter and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 10 ml of ethyl acetate by heating, filter, concentrate the filtrate to about 2 ml as the test solution. Dissolve isorhamnetin CRS in ethyl acetate to produce a solution of 1 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin-layer chromatography (Appendix VI B), using silica gel GF254 as the coating substance and a mixture of toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10-15 ml of the test solution and 5 ml of the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air, and examine under ultraviolet light (254 nm). The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution corresponds in position and colour to the spot obtained with the reference solution.
(3) To 2 g of the powder add 50 ml of 80% ethanol, macerate for 24 hours, filter and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 5 ml of water, filter. Extract the filtrate with two portions of 5 ml of butanol saturated with water. Combine the extracts and concentrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 2 ml of ethanol as the test solution. Dissolve isorhamnetin CRS and typhaneoside CRS in ethanol to produce a solution containing 1 mg of each per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin-layer chromatography (Appendix VI B), using silica gel GF254 as the coating substance and a mixture of ethyl acetate-butanone-formic acid-water (5:3:1:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 5-10 ml of the test solution and 5 ml of the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air, and examine under ultraviolet light (254 nm). The spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots obtained with the reference solution.
Foreign matter: Not more than 10% (Appendix IX A).
Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix VI D), using a column packed with octadecylsilane bonded silica gel and a mixture of acetonitrile-water (15:85) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength is 254 nm and the number of theoretical plates of the column is not less than 1 000, calculated with reference to the peak of isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside.
Reference Preparation: Dissolve a quantity of isorhamnetin-3-o-neohesperidoside CRS, accurately weighed, in methanol to produce a solution of 50 mg per ml.
Test Preparation: To about 0.5 g [perform a determination of water (Appendix IX H, method 1)], accurately weighed, in a 50 ml volumetric flask, add 45 ml of methanol, ultrasonicate (power 250 W, frequency 20 kHz) for 30 minutes, cool, add methanol to volume, shake thoroughly. Filter and use the successive filtrate as the test solution.
Procedure: Inject 10 ml of the reference solution and 20 ml of the test solution, both accurately measured, into the column. Calculate the content of C28H32O16.
It contains not less than 0.10% of isorhamnetin-3-o-neohesperidoside (C28H32O16) calculated on the dried basis.
Processing: Pollen Typhae (unprocessed) Pulverize and sift.
Pollen Typhae (carbonized): Stir-bake the clean Pollen Typhae as described under the method for carbonizing by stir-baking (Appendix II D) until it becomes brown in colour.
Action: To arrest bleeding, to remove blood stasis, and to relieve dysuria.
Indications: Hematemesis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, abnormal uterine bleeding, traumatic bleeding; amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, pricking pain in the epigastrium, traumatic swelling and pain; dysuria with difficult painful passage of bloody urine.
Usage and dosage: 5-9 g, to be wrapped for decoction; for external use, appropriate quantity to be applied topically.
Precaution: Used with caution in pregnancy.
Storage: Preserve in a ventilated and dry place, protected from moisture and moth.